Journal article

A Definition of "Flare" in Low Back Pain: A Multiphase Process Involving Perspectives of Individuals With Low Back Pain and Expert Consensus

Nathalia Costa, Manuela L Ferreira, Jenny Setchell, Joanna Makovey, Tanya Dekroo, Aron Downie, Ashish Diwan, Bart Koes, Bard Natvig, Bill Vicenzino, David Hunter, Eric J Roseen, Eva Rasmussen -Barr, Francis Guillemin, Jan Hartvigsen, Kim Bennell, Leonardo Costa, Luciana Macedo, Marina Pinheiro, Martin Underwood Show all

The Journal of Pain | CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE | Published : 2019


Low back pain (LBP) varies over time. Consumers, clinicians, and researchers use various terms to describe LBP fluctuations, such as episodes, recurrences and flares. Although "flare" is use commonly, there is no consensus on how it is defined. This study aimed to obtain consensus for a LBP flare definition using a mixed-method approach. Step 1 involved the derivation of a preliminary candidate flare definition based on thematic analysis of views of 130 consumers in consultation with an expert consumer writer. In step 2, a workshop was conducted to incorporate perspectives of 19 LBP experts into the preliminary flare definition, which resulted in 2 alternative LBP flare definitions. Step 3 r..

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University of Melbourne Researchers


Awarded by National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) of Australia

Awarded by Centre of Research Excellence grant from the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) of Australia

Funding Acknowledgements

Supported by a Program grant (APP1091302); Centre of Research Excellence grant (APP1079078) and Fellowships (PH APP1102905; MLF APP1143593; DJH -APP632922) from the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) of Australia. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.