Journal article

How Does It Feel to Be Treated Like an Object? Direct and Indirect Effects of Exposure to Sexual Objectification on Women's Emotions in Daily Life

Peter Koval, Elise Holland, Michael J Zyphur, Michelle Stratemeyer, Jennifer Makovec Knight, Natasha H Bailen, Renee J Thompson, Tomi-Ann Roberts, Nick Haslam

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology | American Psychological Association | Published : 2019


Exposure to sexual objectification is an everyday experience for many women, yet little is known about its emotional consequences. Fredrickson and Roberts' (1997) objectification theory proposed a within-person process, wherein exposure to sexual objectification causes women to adopt a third-person perspective on their bodies, labeled self-objectification, which has harmful downstream consequences for their emotional well-being. However, previous studies have only tested this model at the between-person level, making them unreliable sources of inference about the proposed intraindividual psychological consequences of objectification. Here, we report the results of Bayesian multilevel structu..

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