Exploring Heterogeneity on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: A Cluster Analytical Investigation
Sean P Carruthers, Caroline T Gurvich, Denny Meyer, Chad Bousman, Ian P Everall, Erica Neill, Christos Pantelis, Philip J Sumner, Eric J Tan, Elizabeth HX Thomas, Tamsyn E Van Rheenen, Susan L Rossell
Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society | CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS | Published : 2019
OBJECTIVES: The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is a complex measure of executive function that is frequently employed to investigate the schizophrenia spectrum. The successful completion of the task requires the interaction of multiple intact executive processes, including attention, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and concept formation. Considerable cognitive heterogeneity exists among the schizophrenia spectrum population, with substantive evidence to support the existence of distinct cognitive phenotypes. The within-group performance heterogeneity of individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) on the WCST has yet to be investigated. A data-driven cluster analysis was per..View full abstract
Awarded by Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)
Awarded by National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia
This work was supported by Australian Postgraduate Awards (S.P.C, P.J.S) and by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC; fellowships to C.G (ID: 5467262), T.V.R (1088785), E.J.T (1142424) and C.P (628386 and 1105825); and a project grant to S.L.R (ID: 1060664)). The authors acknowledge the support of the Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre and the financial support of the Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) for Mental Health. The CRC programme is an Australian government Initiative. The authors wish to acknowledge the CRC Scientific Advisory Committee, in addition to the contributions of study participants, clinicians at recruitment services, staff at the Murdoch Children's Research Institute, staff at the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Flagship Study of Aging, and research staff at the Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, including coordinators Phassouliotis, C., Merritt, A., and research assistants, Burnside, A., Cross, H., Gale, S., and Tahtalian, S. None of the funding sources played any role in the study design; collection, analysis or interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the paper for publication. Participants for this study were sourced, in part, through the Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank (ASRB), which is supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (Enabling Grant ID: 386500), the Pratt Foundation, Ramsay Health Care, the Viertel Charitable Foundation, and the Schizophrenia Research Institute. We thank the Chief Investigators and ASRB Manager: Carr, V., Schall, U., Scott, R., Jablensky, A., Mowry, B., Michie, P., Catts, S., Henskens, F., Pantelis, C., Loughland, C. We acknowledge the help of Jason Bridge for ASRB database queries.