Journal article

Environmental Foundations of Typhoid Fever in the Fijian Residential Setting

Aaron P Jenkins, Stacy D Jupiter, Adam Jenney, Varanisese Rosa, Alanieta Naucukidi, Namrata Prasad, Gandercillar Vosaki, Kim Mulholland, Richard Strugnell, Mike Kama, John A Crump, Pierre Horwitz

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | MDPI | Published : 2019

Abstract

Proximal characteristics and conditions in the residential setting deserve greater attention for their potential to influence typhoid transmission. Using a case-control design in Central Division, Republic of Fiji, we examined bacterial (coliform and Escherichia coli) contamination and chemical composition of water and soil as potential vehicles of exposure to Salmonella Typhi, combining observational analysis of residential living conditions, geospatial analysis of household locations, and factor analysis to explore multivariate associations with the risk of developing typhoid fever. Factors positively associated with typhoid infection related to drainage [phosphate (OR 4.235, p = 0.042) an..

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Grants

Awarded by Edith Cowan University


Awarded by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation


Funding Acknowledgements

The work was conducted while the senior author was in receipt of an Australian Postgraduate Research Award, and while Horwitz and Jupiter were in receipt of a collaborative Developmental Research Grant (G1001474) from Edith Cowan University and Wildlife Conservation Society. Additional financial support was provided via the Coalition against Typhoid through the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation [grant number OPP1017518].