Journal article

Management of refractory lupus nephritis: challenges and solutions

JH Yo, TD Barbour, K Nicholls

OPEN ACCESS RHEUMATOLOGY-RESEARCH AND REVIEWS | DOVE MEDICAL PRESS LTD | Published : 2019

Abstract

Refractory lupus nephritis, broadly defined as failure to attain clinical remission after appropriate induction immunosuppressive therapy, is associated with an increased risk of progression to end-stage kidney disease and mortality. This is a challenging issue in clinical practice, as modern induction therapy despite proven efficacy can still be associated with treatment failure. Moreover, newer therapies have failed in recent years to displace or even match existing protocols for effective induction of remission. Refractory disease is generally assessed on the basis of clinical parameters, which may be unreliable, and renal biopsy, which is often not performed in a standard or timely fashi..

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