Journal article

Assessment of grain quality in terms of functional group response to elevated [CO2], water, and nitrogen using a meta-analysis: Grain protein, zinc, and iron under future climate

Ikhlas Al-Hadeethi, Yan Li, Abdul Kareem H Odhafa, Hanan Al-Hadeethi, Saman Seneweera, Shu K Lam

Ecology and Evolution | Wiley | Published : 2019


The increasing [CO2] in the atmosphere increases crop productivity. However, grain quality of cereals and pulses are substantially decreased and consequently compromise human health. Meta‐analysis techniques were employed to investigate the effect of elevated [CO2] (e[CO2]) on protein, zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) concentrations of major food crops (542 experimental observations from 135 studies) including wheat, rice, soybean, field peas, and corn considering different levels of water and nitrogen (N). Each crop, except soybean, had decreased protein, Zn, and Fe concentrations when grown at e[CO2] concentration (≥550 μmol/mol) compared to ambient [CO2] (a[CO2]) concentration (≤380 μmol/mol). Gr..

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Funding Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank Dr. Lee H. Dietterich in the University of Pennsylvania for providing the information about the construction of the database, Dr. Nehad Albadri for the valuable comments on the manuscript, Mrs Delphine Cottam and Mr Kevin Cottam for their encourage and their support to the first author at all stages of the research, and Mrs Auhood Al-Hossenat for her help. Also, thanks to the sponsor of the first author (Iraqi Government).