Endovascular embolization of canine hepatic arteriovenous malformations using precipitating hydrophobic injectable liquid (PHIL) liquid embolic agent: a proof of concept study.
Stewart D Ryan, Anjali Nambiar, Julian Maingard, Hong Kuan Kok, Robert BS Turner, Duncan Mark Brooks, Hamed Asadi
CVIR Endovascular | SpringerOpen | Published : 2019
BACKGROUND: Hepatic arteriovenous malformations (HAVMs) are rare congenital lesions consisting of multiple high-pressure arteries feeding into low-pressure veins via a central nidus. Massive haemorrhage, portal hypertension and hepatic insufficiency can ensue. Endovascular embolization is increasingly a first line treatment method although there is no general consensus or guidelines on the most effective embolic agent or approach. We describe the novel treatment of two dogs with congenital hepatic AVMs using a modified version of the 'pressure cooker' technique often utilised in neurointervention with the DMSO-based PHIL embolic agent delivered via the DMSO compatible Scepter-XC dual lumen b..View full abstract