Journal article

Phylotranscriptomics resolves phylogeny of the Heliozelidae (Adeloidea: Lepidoptera) and suggests a Late Cretaceous origin in Australia

Liz Milla, Adnan Moussalli, Stephen A Wilcox, Erik J van Nieukerken, David A Young, Mike Halsey, Thomas McConville, Theresa M Jones, Axel Kallies, Douglas J Hilton



Heliozelidae are a cosmopolitan family of small, day-flying moths, and include some pest species of commercial crops. Overall, the family is poorly known and lacks a well-resolved phylogeny. Previous molecular and taxonomic work has revealed rich undescribed diversity within the family, particularly in Australia; however, the relationships amongst the major clades or genera were not resolved. We sequenced the transcriptomes of 39 taxa, representing all major genera of Heliozelidae, and seven outgroups representing most other Adeloidea families and the putative sister superfamily, Andesianoidea. The resulting phylogeny, based on the coding sequences of up to 1049 nuclear genes, provides a rob..

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Awarded by Melbourne Bioinformatics at the University of Melbourne

Awarded by Hermon Slade Foundation

Awarded by Holsworth Wildlife Research Endowment Equity Trustees Charitable Foundation

Funding Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the support of many people and organisations during this study: Rudolf Bryner (Biel, Switzerland), Leigh Steyn (Stellenbosch, South Africa), SteveWullaert (Paal, Belgium) for collecting and sending material; Camiel Doorenweerd (Leiden, Netherlands, now Honolulu, U.S. A.), Alex Gorman and Jordan Wilcox for molecular laboratory support; Andreas Zwick (ANIC, CSIRO) for expert bioinformatics advice; Terry and Jen Haddon (Nannup, Australia) for generous hospitality and support while in the field; and Melbourne Bioinformatics at the University of Melbourne (UOM0024) for the use of computational resources. We would like to thank the staff of the following government departments and institutes for their assistance obtaining research permits and for the generous advice and help they have provided in the field: Department of Parks and Wildlife (Western Australia), especially Sarah Barrett, Danny Stefoni, Alan Wills, Jo Shalders, Mike Paxman and Barbara Beliers; Parks Victoria (Victoria, Australia); Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (Tasmania, Australia); Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW, Australia); Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales ` Bernadino Rivadiavia' (Buenos Aires, Argentina), particularly Dr Luis Compagnucci; Paola Favre (Administration de Parques Nacionales, Argentina), Nicolas Pacheco (Parque Nacional Puyehue, Chile), Dr Luis Parra (Universidad de Concepcion, Chile) and Juan Gamin Munoz (Corporacion Nacional Forestal, Chile). For additional photographs we'd like to thank R. Bryner, Charley Eiseman (Northfield, MA, U.S. A.) and Darren Carman (Australia). The authors would also like to thank the two external reviewers of this manuscript for their insightful comments and helpful suggestions. This work was supported by the following grants: Hermon Slade Foundation (HSF15/6), The Holsworth Wildlife Research Endowment Equity Trustees Charitable Foundation (HOLSW2015-1-F067 and HOLSW2016-R1-F009), Australian Lepidoptera Research Endowment. LM received support from a Research Training Program Scholarship, provided by the Australian government. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. The authors declare there are no conflicts of interest.