Journal article

Neurological and psychiatric adverse effects of long-term methylphenidate treatment in ADHD: A map of the current evidence

Helga Krinzinger, Charlotte L Hall, Madeleine J Groom, Mohammed T Ansari, Tobias Banaschewski, Jan K Buitelaar, Sara Carucci, David Coghill, Marina Danckaerts, Ralf W Dittmann, Bruno Falissard, Peter Garas, Sarah K Inglis, Hanna Kovshoff, Puja Kochhar, Suzanne McCarthy, Peter Nagy, Antje Neubert, Samantha Roberts, Kapil Sayal Show all



Methylphenidate (MPH), the most common medication for children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in many countries, is often prescribed for long periods of time. Any long-term psychotropic treatment in childhood raises concerns about possible adverse neurological and psychiatric outcomes. We aimed to map current evidence regarding neurological and psychiatric outcomes, adverse or beneficial, of long-term MPH (> 1 year) treatment in ADHD. We coded studies using a "traffic light" system: Green: safe/favours MPH; Amber: warrants caution; Red: not safe/not well-tolerated. Un-categorisable study findings were coded as "Unclear". Although some evidence suggests an elevated risk ..

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Awarded by European Union

Funding Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no 260576. The research was also supported by the NIHR Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre and NIHR MindTech MedTech Co-operative. The views represented are the views of the authors alone and do not necessarily represent the views of the Department of Health in England, NHS, or the National Institute for Health Research.Dr. Sara Carucci has collaboration within projects from the European Union (7th Framework Program) and collaboration as subinvestigator in sponsored clinical trials by Shire Pharmaceutical Company, Lundbeck, Otsuka and Janssen Cilag. Travel support from Shire Pharmaceutical Company and Fidia Farmaceutici.Prof. Marina Dankaerts is a member of the European ADHD Guideline Group (EAGG) and holds grants from the European Union FP7 programme.Prof. Ralf W. Dittmann has received compensation for serving as consultant or speaker, or he or the institution he works for have received research support or royalties from the organizations or companies indicated: EU (FP7 Programme), US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), German Federal Ministry of Health/Regulatory Agency (BMG/BfArM), German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), German Research Foundation (DFG), Volkswagen Foundation; Boehringer Ingelheim, Ferring, Janssen-Cilag, Lilly, Lundbeck, Otsuka, Servier, Shire, Sunovion/Takeda and Theravance. He owns Eli Lilly stock. Prof. Kapil Sayal reports grants from the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) during the conduct of the study. He is a member of the NICE ADHD Guideline Committee.Prof. Edmund Sonuga-Barke's financial declarations are: Speaker fees, consultancy, research funding and conference support from Shire Pharma. Speaker fees from American University of Beirut, Janssen Cilag, Consultancy from Neurotech solutions, Copenhagen University and Berhanderling, Skolerne, KU Leuven. Book royalties from OUP and Jessica Kingsley. Financial support received from Arrhus Univeristy and Ghent University for visiting Professorship. Grants awarded from MRC, ESRC, Wellcome Trust, Solent NHS Trust, European Union, Child Health Research Foundation New Zealand, NIHR, Nuffield Foundation, Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek-Vlaanderen (FWO), MQ Transforming Mental health. Editor-in-Chief JCPP supported by a buy-out of time to University of Southampton and personal Honorarium. Non-financial declarations are: Member of the European ADHD Guidelines Group.Prof. Ian Wong reports grants from European Union FP7 programme, during the conduct of the study; grants from Shire, grants from Janssen-Cilag, grants from Eli-Lily, grants from Pfizer, outside the submitted work; and Prof Wong was a member of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) ADHD Guideline Group and the British Association for Psychopharmacology ADHD guideline group and acted as an advisor to Shire.Prof. Chris Hollis reports grants from European Union FP7 programme, H2020, National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) and Medical Research Council (MRC) during the conduct of the study; He is a member of the European ADHD Guideline Group (EAGG) and NICE ADHD Guideline Committee.