Risk factors for chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes: a systematic review
Evelina Chapman, Michelle M Haby, Eduardo Illanes, Julian Sanchez-Viamonte, Vanessa Elias, Ludovic Reveiz
Pan American Journal of Public Health | PAN AMER HEALTH ORGANIZATION | Published : 2019
Objectives: To evaluate the potential associations between chronic kidney disease of uncertain or non-traditional etiology (CKDnT) and agrochemicals, heat stress, heavy metals, and other factors identified in the literature in any region of the world and at any time. Methods: This was a systematic review of the most frequent exposures suspected to be possible causes of CKDnT. A search was conducted of PubMed, LILACS, World Wide Science electronic databases, among other sources. Only medium- and high-quality studies were included. The synthesis of evidence included a narrative synthesis, meta-analysis, and meta-regression. Results: Four systematic reviews and 61 primary studies were included...View full abstract
This review was funded by PAHO/WHO. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of PAHO/WHO. The funders had no role in the study design, data collection or analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.