A cross-sectional study on levels of secondhand smoke in restaurants and bars in five cities in China.
RL Liu, Y Yang, MJ Travers, GT Fong, RJ O'Connor, A Hyland, L Li, Y Nan, GZ Feng, Q Li, Y Jiang
Tobacco Control | BMJ | Published : 2011
OBJECTIVES: To assess indoor secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in restaurants and bars via PM(2.5) level measurements in five cities in China. METHODS: The study was conducted from July to September in 2007 in Beijing, Xi'an, Wuhan, Kunming and Guiyang. PM(2.5) concentrations were measured in 404 restaurants and bars using portable aerosol monitors. The occupant density and the active smoker density were calculated for each venue sampled. RESULTS: Among the 404 surveyed venues, 23 had complete smoking bans, nine had partial smoking bans and 313 (77.5%) had smoking observed during sampling. The geometric mean of indoor PM(2.5) levels in venues with smoking observed was 208 μg/m(3) and 99 μg/m(3..View full abstract