Journal article

A Critical Review of Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Processes from a Circular Economy Perspective

Omar Velazquez-Martinez, Johanna Valio, Annukka Santasalo-Aarnio, Markus Reuter, Rodrigo Serna-Guerrero

Batteries | MDPI | Published : 2019


Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are currently one of the most important electrochemical energy storage devices, powering electronic mobile devices and electric vehicles alike. However, there is a remarkable difference between their rate of production and rate of recycling. At the end of their lifecycle, only a limited number of LIBs undergo any recycling treatment, with the majority go to landfills or being hoarded in households. Further losses of LIB components occur because the the state-of-the-art LIB recycling processes are limited to components with high economic value, e.g., Co, Cu, Fe, and Al. With the increasing popularity of concepts such as “circular economy” (CE), new LIB recycling s..

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University of Melbourne Researchers


Awarded by METYK-project - Finnish innovation agency (TEKES)

Awarded by "Closing the loop for high-added value materials (CloseLoop)" project - Academy of Finland

Funding Acknowledgements

This research was funded by the METYK-project (grant number 3254/31/2015), funded by Finnish innovation agency (TEKES), as well as the "Closing the loop for high-added value materials (CloseLoop)" project (grant number 303454) supported by the Academy of Finland.