Journal article

Quasi-experimentally examining the impact of introducing tobacco pictorial health warnings: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) 4C and Netherlands surveys in the Netherlands, Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, and the United States

Dirk-Jan A van Mourik, Gera E Nagelhout, Hein de Vries, Bas van den Putte, K Michael Cummings, Ron Borland, Geoffrey T Fong, Marc C Willemsen

Drug and Alcohol Dependence | ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD | Published : 2020

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Our study evaluated the short-term impact of introducing European Union's tobacco pictorial health warnings (PHWs). METHODS: Longitudinal data were collected at two time-points from adult smokers, participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) surveys, conducted in the Netherlands, Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. In the Netherlands, textual health warnings (THWs) were replaced by PHWs between both time-points. Health warning policies did not change in the other countries. Data from continuing smokers were used (N = 3,487) and analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations. RESULTS: Between both time-points, only Dutch smokers showed increas..

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Grants

Awarded by National Cancer Institute of the USA


Awarded by Canadian Institutes of Health Research


Awarded by National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia


Awarded by Cancer Research UK


Awarded by Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZonMw)


Awarded by Dutch Cancer Foundation (KWF)


Funding Acknowledgements

The ITC 4 Country Project was supported by grants R01 CA 100362, P50 CA111236 (Roswell Park Transdisciplinary Tobacco Use Research Center), and P01 CA138389 from the National Cancer Institute of the USA, Canadian Institutes of Health Research (MOP-79551 and FDN-148477), National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (450110), and Cancer Research UK (C321/A11039 and C25586/A19540). The ITC Netherlands Surveys were supported by The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZonMw; 200130002) and the Dutch Cancer Foundation (KWF) (UM 2014-7210). The funders had no role in the design, analysis, preparation, or decision to publish the manuscript. Additional support was provided to Geoffrey T. Fong from a Senior Investigator Award from the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research and a Prevention Scientist Award from the Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute.