A Literature Review of Intrathecal Morphine Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Major Open Hepato-Pancreatic-Biliary (HPB) Surgery.
Jefferson Zhi Jie Tang, Laurence Weinberg
Anesthesiology and pain medicine | Published : 2019
Context: The optimal analgesic method for patients undergoing major open hepato-pancreatic-biliary surgery remains controversial. Continuous epidural infusion at the thoracic level remains the standard choice, however concerns have been raised due to associated complications. Single shot intrathecal morphine has emerged as a promising alternative offering similar analgesia with an enhanced safety profile. Evidence Acquisition: This review aimed to evaluate the literature comparing intrathecal morphine analgesia to other analgesic modalities following major open hepato-pancreatic-biliary surgery. The primary outcome was pain scores at rest and on movement 24 h after surgery. Secondary outcome..View full abstract