Hormonal and Molecular Regulation of Phallus Differentiation in a Marsupial Tammar Wallaby
Yu Chen, Marilyn B Renfree
GENES | MDPI | Published : 2020
Congenital anomalies in phalluses caused by endocrine disruptors have gained a great deal of attention due to its annual increasing rate in males. However, the endocrine-driven molecular regulatory mechanism of abnormal phallus development is complex and remains largely unknown. Here, we review the direct effect of androgen and oestrogen on molecular regulation in phalluses using the marsupial tammar wallaby, whose phallus differentiation occurs after birth. We summarize and discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying phallus differentiation mediated by sonic hedgehog (SHH) at day 50 pp and phallus elongation mediated by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and insulin-like growth factor bind..View full abstract
This study was supported by grants from the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia.