TRANSCRANIAL DOPPLER ULTRASOUND IDENTIFIES PATIENTS WITH RIGHT-TO-LEFT CARDIAC OR PULMONARY SHUNTS
MI CHIMOWITZ, JJ NEMEC, TH MARWICK, RJ LORIG, AJ FURLAN, EE SALCEDO
NEUROLOGY | LIPPINCOTT-RAVEN PUBL | Published : 1991
We performed transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) and transesophageal contrast echocardiography simultaneously in four patients. In one patient with a patent foramen ovale and another patient with pulmonary A-V fistulae, we detected micro air bubbles in the right middle cerebral artery three to five cardiac cycles after their appearance in the left atrium following intravenous injection of contrast. In two patients without right-to-left shunts, we did not detect air bubbles in the left atrium or middle cerebral artery following injection of contrast. These results show that TCD can identify patients with right-to-left cardiac or pulmonary shunts.