Journal article

Estimating the sample mean and standard deviation from commonly reported quantiles in meta-analysis

Sean McGrath, XiaoFei Zhao, Russell Steele, Brett D Thombs, Andrea Benedetti, Brooke Levis, Kira E Riehm, Nazanin Saadat, Alexander W Levis, Marleine Azar, Danielle B Rice, Ying Sun, Ankur Krishnan, Chen He, Yin Wu, Parash Mani Bhandari, Dipika Neupane, Mahrukh Imran, Jill Boruff, Pim Cuijpers Show all

Statistical Methods in Medical Research | SAGE Publications | Published : 2020

Abstract

Researchers increasingly use meta-analysis to synthesize the results of several studies in order to estimate a common effect. When the outcome variable is continuous, standard meta-analytic approaches assume that the primary studies report the sample mean and standard deviation of the outcome. However, when the outcome is skewed, authors sometimes summarize the data by reporting the sample median and one or both of (i) the minimum and maximum values and (ii) the first and third quartiles, but do not report the mean or standard deviation. To include these studies in meta-analysis, several methods have been developed to estimate the sample mean and standard deviation from the reported summary ..

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Grants

Awarded by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)


Awarded by Tehran University of Medical Sciences


Awarded by Department of Education, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems: University of Washington


Awarded by Baylor College of Medicine


Awarded by University of Michigan


Awarded by National Health and Medical Research Council


Awarded by Australian Research Council


Awarded by United States National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) grant


Awarded by NIH Office of Research for Women's Health through the Fogarty Global Health Fellows Program Consortium


Awarded by NIMH


Awarded by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


Awarded by US National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research


Awarded by German Federal Ministry of Education and Research


Awarded by NIH


Awarded by Research and Development Administration Office, University of Macau


Awarded by Federal Ministry of Education and Research


Awarded by CIHR


Awarded by Greek Ministry of Education, Lifelong Learning and Religious Affairs (ARISTEIA-ABREVIATE)


Awarded by UK National Institute for Health Research under its Programme Grants for Applied Research Programme


Awarded by Australian National Health and Medical Research Council fellowship


Awarded by Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development


Awarded by National Health Research Institute, Republic of China


Awarded by Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand


Awarded by Reitoria de Pesquisa da Universidade de Sao Paulo


Awarded by Banco Santander


Awarded by medical faculty of the University of Heidelberg, Germany


Awarded by PQ-CNPq-2


Awarded by United States Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration


Awarded by Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality


Awarded by National Center for Research Resources


Awarded by Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw) Mental Health Program


Awarded by Fund for Innovation and Competitiveness of the Chilean Ministry of Economy, Development and Tourism, through the Millennium Scientific Initiative


Awarded by National Heart Lung and Blood Institute


Funding Acknowledgements

The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This study was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR; KRS-134297). BDT and AB were supported by Fonds de recherche du Quebec -Sante (FRQS) researcher salary awards. BLevis was supported by a CIHR Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarship doctoral award. KER and NS were supported by CIHR Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarship master's awards. AWL and MA were supported by FRQS Masters Training Awards. DBR was supported by a Vanier Canada Graduate Scholarship. YW was supported by a FRQS Postdoctoral Training Fellowship. PMB was supported by a studentship from the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre. DN was supported by G.R. Caverhill Fellowship from the Faculty of Medicine, McGill University. The primary studies by Amoozegar and by Fiest et al. were funded by the Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, and Alberta Health Services through the Calgary Health Trust, as well as the Hotchkiss Brain Institute. SBP was supported by a Senior Health Scholar award from Alberta Innovates Health Solutions. Collection of data for the study by Arroll et al. was supported by a project grant from the Health Research Council of New Zealand. Data collection for the study by Ayalon et al. was supported from a grant from Lundbeck International. The primary study by Khamseh et al. was supported by a grant (M-288) from Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The primary study by Bombardier et al. was supported by the Department of Education, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems: University of Washington (grant No H133N060033), Baylor College of Medicine (grant No H133N060003), and University of Michigan (grant No H133N060032). Collection of data for the primary study by Kiely et al. was supported by National Health and Medical Research Council (grant No 1002160) and Safe Work Australia. PB was supported by Australian Research Council Future Fellowship FT130101444. Collection of data for the primary study by Zhang et al. was supported by the European Foundation for Study of Diabetes, the Chinese Diabetes Society, Lilly Foundation, Asia Diabetes Foundation, and Liao Wun Yuk Diabetes Memorial Fund. RC was supported by a United States National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) grant (5F30MH096664), and the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of the Director, Fogarty International Center, Office of AIDS Research, National Cancer Center, National Heart, Blood, and Lung Institute, and the NIH Office of Research for Women's Health through the Fogarty Global Health Fellows Program Consortium (1R25TW00934001) and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. YC received support from NIMH (R24MH071604) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (R49 CE002093). Collection of data for the primary study by Delgadillo et al. was supported by grant from St Anne's Community Services, Leeds, UK. Collection of data for the primary study by Fann et al. was supported by grant RO1 HD39415 from the US National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research. The primary study by Fischer et al. was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (01GY1150). Data for the primary study by Gelaye et al. was supported by grant from the NIH (T37 MD001449). Collection of data for the primary study by Gjerdingen et al.was supported by grants from the NIMH (R34 MH072925, K02 MH65919, P30 DK50456). The primary study by Eack et al. was funded by the NIMH (R24 MH56858). Collection of data for the primary study by Hobfoll et al. was made possible in part by grants from NIMH (RO1 MH073687) and the Ohio Board of Regents. BJH received support from a grant awarded by the Research and Development Administration Office, University of Macau (MYRG2015-00109-FSS). Collection of data provided by MHarter and KR was supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (grants No 01 GD 9802/4 and 01 GD 0101) and by the Federation of German Pension Insurance Institute. The primary study by Henkel et al. was funded by the German Ministry of Research and Education. The primary study by Hides et al. was funded by the Perpetual Trustees, Flora and Frank Leith Charitable Trust, Jack Brockhoff Foundation, Grosvenor Settlement, Sunshine Foundation, and Danks Trust. Data for the study by Razykov et al. was collected by the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group, which was funded by the CIHR (FRN 83518), the Scleroderma Society of Canada, the Scleroderma Society of Ontario, the Scleroderma Society of Saskatchewan, Sclerodermie Quebec, the Cure Scleroderma Foundation, Inova Diagnostics Inc, Euroimmun, FRQS, the Canadian Arthritis Network, and the Lady Davis Institute of Medical Research of the Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC. MHudson was supported by a FRQS Senior Investigator Award. Collection of data for the primary study by Hyphantis et al. was supported by grant from the National Strategic Reference Framework, European Union, and the Greek Ministry of Education, Lifelong Learning and Religious Affairs (ARISTEIA-ABREVIATE, 1259). The primary study by Inagaki et al. was supported by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan. The primary study by Twist et al. was funded by the UK National Institute for Health Research under its Programme Grants for Applied Research Programme (grant reference No RP-PG-0606-1142). NJ was supported by a Canada Research Chair in Neurological Health Services Research and an AIHS Population Health Investigator Award. KMK was supported by funding from a Australian National Health and Medical Research Council fellowship (grant No 1088313). The primary study by Lamers et al. was funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (grant No 945-03-047). The primary study by Liu et al. was funded by a grant from the National Health Research Institute, Republic of China (NHRI-EX97-9706PI). The primary study by Lotrakul et al. was supported by the Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand (grant No 49086). The primary studies by Osorio et al. were funded by Reitoria de Pesquisa da Universidade de Sao Paulo (grant No 09.1.01689.17.7) and Banco Santander (grant No 10.1.01232.17.9). BLowe received research grants from Pfizer, Germany, and from the medical faculty of the University of Heidelberg, Germany (project 121/2000) for the study by Grafe et al.. Collection of data for the primary study by Williams et al. was supported by an NIMH grant to LM (RO1-MH069666). The primary study by Mohd Sidik et al. was funded under the Research University Grant Scheme from Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia, and the Postgraduate Research Student Support Accounts of the University of Auckland, New Zealand. The primary study by Santos et al. was funded by the National Program for Centers of Excellence (PRONEX/FAPERGS/CNPq, Brazil). The primary study by Muramatsu et al.was supported by an educational grant from Pfizer US Pharmaceutical Inc. FLO was supported by Productivity Grants (PQ-CNPq-2 number 301321/2016-7). Collection of primary data for the study by Pence et al. was provided by NIMH (R34MH084673). The primary study by Persoons et al. was supported by a grant from the Belgian Ministry of Public Health and Social Affairs and a restricted grant from Pfizer Belgium. The primary study by Picardi et al. was supported by funds for current research from the Italian Ministry of Health. The primary study by Rooney et al. was funded by the UK National Health Service Lothian Neuro-Oncology Endowment Fund. JS was supported by funding from Universiti Sains Malaysia. The primary study by Sidebottom et al. was funded by a grant from the United States Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (grant No R40MC07840). Simning et al.'s research was supported in part by grants from the NIH (T32 GM07356), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (R36 HS018246), NIMH (R24 MH071604), and the National Center for Research Resources (TL1 RR024135). LS received PhD scholarship funding from the University of Melbourne. Collection of data for the studies by Turner et al. were funded by a bequest from Jennie Thomas through the Hunter Medical Research Institute. The study by van Steenbergen-Weijenburg et al. was funded by Innovatiefonds Zorgverzekeraars. The study by Wittkampf et al. was funded by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw) Mental Health Program (No 100.003.005 and 100.002.021) and the Academic Medical Center/University of Amsterdam. PAV was supported by the Fund for Innovation and Competitiveness of the Chilean Ministry of Economy, Development and Tourism, through the Millennium Scientific Initiative (grant No IS130005). The primary study by Thombs et al. was done with data from the Heart and Soul Study. The Heart and Soul Study was funded by the Department of Veterans Epidemiology Merit Review Program, the Department of Veterans Affairs Health Services Research and Development service, the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (R01 HL079235), the American Federation for Ageing Research, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and the Ischemia Research and Education Foundation. No other authors reported funding for primary studies or for their work on this study. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.