A cross-sectional study on levels of second-hand smoke in restaurants and bars in five cities in China.
RL Liu, Y Yang, MJ Travers, GT Fong, RJ O'Connor, A Hyland, L Li, Y Nan, GZ Feng, Q Li, Y Jiang
Tob Control | Published : 2010
OBJECTIVES: To assess indoor second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in restaurants and bars via PM(2.5) (fine particles 2.5 μm in diameter and smaller) level measurements in five cities in China. METHODS: The study was conducted from July to September in 2007 in Beijing, Xi'an, Wuhan, Kunming and Guiyang. Portable aerosol monitors were used to measure PM(2.5) concentrations in 404 restaurants and bars. The occupant density and the active smoker density were calculated for each venue sampled. RESULTS: Among the 404 surveyed venues, 23 had complete smoking bans, 9 had partial smoking bans and 313 (77.5%) were observed to have allowed smoking during sampling. The geometric mean of indoor PM(2.5) leve..View full abstract