Journal article

Sex and APOE epsilon 4 genotype modify the Alzheimer's disease serum metabolome

Matthias Arnold, Kwangsik Nho, Alexandra Kueider-Paisley, Tyler Massaro, Kevin Huynh, Barbara Brauner, Siamak MahmoudianDehkordi, Gregory Louie, M Arthur Moseley, J Will Thompson, Lisa St John-Williams, Jessica D Tenenbaum, Colette Blach, Rui Chang, Roberta D Brinton, Rebecca Baillie, Xianlin Han, John Q Trojanowski, Leslie M Shaw, Ralph Martins Show all

Nature Communications | NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP | Published : 2020


Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) can, in part, be considered a metabolic disease. Besides age, female sex and APOE ε4 genotype represent strong risk factors for AD that also give rise to large metabolic differences. We systematically investigated group-specific metabolic alterations by conducting stratified association analyses of 139 serum metabolites in 1,517 individuals from the AD Neuroimaging Initiative with AD biomarkers. We observed substantial sex differences in effects of 15 metabolites with partially overlapping differences for APOE ε4 status groups. Several group-specific metabolic alterations were not observed in unstratified analyses using sex and APOE ε4 as covariates. Combi..

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Awarded by ADNI (National Institutes of Health)

Awarded by DOD ADNI (Department of Defense)

Awarded by National Institute on Aging

Awarded by Qatar National Research Fund

Awarded by NIH

Awarded by NIA

Awarded by National Institute on Aging (NIA)

Funding Acknowledgements

Data used in preparation of this article were obtained from the ADNI database (adni.loni. As such, the investigators within the ADNI contributed to the design and implementation of ADNI and/or provided data but did not participate in analysis or writing of this report. A complete listing of ADNI investigators can be found at: data used in preparation of this article were generated by the Alzheimer's Disease Metabolomics Consortium (ADMC) and obtained from the AMP-AD Knowledge Portal ( such, the investigators within the ADMC other than named authors provided data but did not participate in analysis or writing of this report. A complete listing of ADMC investigators can be found at: collection and sharing for this project was funded by the ADNI (National Institutes of Health Grant U01 AG024904) and DOD ADNI (Department of Defense award number W81XWH-12-2-0012). ADNI is funded by the National Institute on Aging, the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, and through generous contributions from the following: AbbVie, Alzheimer's Association; Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation; Araclon Biotech; BioClinica, Inc.; Biogen; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company; CereSpir, Inc.; Cogstate; Eisai Inc.; Elan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Eli Lilly and Company; EuroImmun; F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd and its affiliated company Genentech, Inc.; Fujirebio; GE Healthcare; IXICO Ltd.; Janssen Alzheimer Immunotherapy Research & Development, LLC.; Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development LLC.; Lumosity; Lundbeck; Merck & Co., Inc.; Meso Scale Diagnostics, LLC.; NeuroRx Research; Neurotrack Technologies; Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation; Pfizer Inc.; Piramal Imaging; Servier; Takeda Pharmaceutical Company; and Transition Therapeutics. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research is providing funds to support ADNI clinical sites in Canada. Private sector contributions are facilitated by the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health ( grantee organization is the Northern California Institute for Research and Education, and the study is coordinated by the Alzheimer's Therapeutic Research Institute at the University of Southern California. ADNI data are disseminated by the Laboratory for Neuro Imaging at the University of Southern California. The Religious Orders and the Rush Memory and Aging studies were supported by the National Institute on Aging grants P30AG10161, R01AG15819, R01AG17917, U01AG46152, and U01AG61356. National Institute on Aging (NIA) supported this work (R01 AG059093). NIA also supported the Alzheimer Disease Metabolomics Consortium which is a part of NIA's national initiatives AMP-AD and M2OVE-AD (R01 AG046171, RF1 AG051550, and 3U01 AG024904-09S4). In addition, M.A., R.K.D., and G.K. are supported by NIA grants RF1 AG058942 and R01 AG057452. M.A. and G.K. are also supported by funding from Qatar National Research Fund NPRP8-061-3-011. K.N. is supported by NIH grants NLM R01 LM012535 and NIA R03 AG054936. X.H. is supported by NIA grant RF1 AG061872. P.M.D. is supported by the NIH, Cure Alzheimer's Fund and the Karen L. Wrenn Trust.