Journal article

ENIGMA and global neuroscience: A decade of large-scale studies of the brain in health and disease across more than 40 countries

Paul M Thompson, Neda Jahanshad, Christopher RK Ching, Lauren E Salminen, Sophia I Thomopoulos, Joanna Bright, Bernhard T Baune, Sara Bertolin, Janita Bralten, Willem B Bruin, Robin Buelow, Jian Chen, Yann Chye, Udo Dannlowski, Carolien GF de Kovel, Gary Donohoe, Lisa T Eyler, Stephen V Faraone, Pauline Favre, Courtney A Filippi Show all



This review summarizes the last decade of work by the ENIGMA (Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta Analysis) Consortium, a global alliance of over 1400 scientists across 43 countries, studying the human brain in health and disease. Building on large-scale genetic studies that discovered the first robustly replicated genetic loci associated with brain metrics, ENIGMA has diversified into over 50 working groups (WGs), pooling worldwide data and expertise to answer fundamental questions in neuroscience, psychiatry, neurology, and genetics. Most ENIGMA WGs focus on specific psychiatric and neurological conditions, other WGs study normal variation due to sex and gender differences, or dev..

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Awarded by NIH Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) program

Awarded by ENIGMA World Aging Center

Awarded by ENIGMA Sex Differences Initiative

Awarded by ENIGMA-PGC PTSD Working Group

Awarded by ENIGMA-Addiction Working Group

Awarded by ENIGMA Suicidal Thoughts and Behavior Working Group

Awarded by ENIGMA Epilepsy Working Group

Awarded by Australian NHMRC

Awarded by ENIGMA Task-Related fMRI Group

Awarded by NIH

Funding Acknowledgements

The work reported here was supported in part by many public and private agencies across the world. Individual authors' funding is listed in Supplementary Appendix B. Core funding for ENIGMA was provided by the NIH Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) program under consortium grant U54 EB020403, by the ENIGMA World Aging Center (R56 AG058854), and by the ENIGMA Sex Differences Initiative (R01 MH116147). Additional support was provided by grants to the ENIGMA-PGC PTSD Working Group (R01 MH111671; PI: RAM), the ENIGMA-Addiction Working Group (R01 DA047119; to H.P.G. and P.J.C.), the ENIGMA Suicidal Thoughts and Behavior Working Group (R01 MH117601; to N.J. and L.S.), the ENIGMA Epilepsy Working Group (R01 NS107739; to C.R.M.), a genotyping grant from the Australian NHMRC (APP1103623 and APP1158127; to SEM), a German federal grant to the ENIGMA Task-Related fMRI Group (ER724/4-1 and WA1539/11-1; to H.W. and I.M.V.), a Kavli Foundation Neuroscience without Borders seed grant (to N.J. and P.M.T.), an NIH instrumentation grant (S10 OD023696 to P.K.), and K01 HD091283 (to S. L.L.). We thank all scientists and participants in ENIGMA who made this work possible. A full list of ENIGMA Consortium current and past members can be found here