Journal article

PAID-11: A brief measure of diabetes distress validated in adults with type 1 diabetes.

Natalia Stanulewicz, Peter Mansell, Debbie Cooke, David Hopkins, Jane Speight, Holly Blake

Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice | Elsevier BV | Published : 2019


OBJECTIVE: The Problem Areas In Diabetes (PAID) questionnaire is widely used to assess emotional distress related to living with diabetes, although it is lengthy for routine clinical use. Our aim was to determine whether the original 20-item PAID questionnaire can be abbreviated, whilst maintaining its reliability, validity and utility. METHODS: We analysed data from the UK DAFNE (Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating) education programme for adults with Type 1 diabetes. Data were analysed at baseline (n = 1547) and 1-year post intervention (n = 846). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with principal axis factoring method was used to examine PAID responses within a random half of the baseline dat..

View full abstract