Journal article

Evasion of Influenza A Viruses from Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

Carolien E van de Sandt, Joost HCM Kreijtz, Guus F Rimmelzwaan

Viruses | MDPI | Published : 2012

Abstract

The influenza A virus is one of the leading causes of respiratory tract infections in humans. Upon infection with an influenza A virus, both innate and adaptive immune responses are induced. Here we discuss various strategies used by influenza A viruses to evade innate immune responses and recognition by components of the humoral and cellular immune response, which consequently may result in reduced clearing of the virus and virus-infected cells. Finally, we discuss how the current knowledge about immune evasion can be used to improve influenza A vaccination strategies.