The pathology of Chironex fleckeri venom and known biological mechanisms.
Melissa Piontek, Jamie E Seymour, Yide Wong, Tyler Gilstrom, Jeremy Potriquet, Ernest Jennings, Alan Nimmo, John J Miles
Toxicon: X | Published : 2020
The large box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri is found in northern Australian waters. A sting from this cubozoan species can kill within minutes. From clinical and animal studies, symptoms comprise severe pain, welts, scarring, hypotension, vasospasms, cardiac irregularities and cardiac arrest. At present, there is no cure and opioids are used to manage pain. Antivenom is available but controversy exists over its effectiveness. Experimental and combination therapies performed in vitro and in vivo have shown varied efficacy. These inconsistent results are likely a consequence of the different methods used to extract venom. Recent omics analysis has shed light on the systems of C. fleckeri venom a..View full abstract