Journal article

Medical treatment in thyroid eye disease in 2020

Jwu Jin Khong, Alan McNab

BRITISH JOURNAL OF OPHTHALMOLOGY | BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP | Published : 2021

Abstract

Thyroid eye disease (TED) affects 25% of patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism, where 1 in 20 patients has active, moderate-to-severe disease that will require medical treatment for reducing TED activity and severity. Intravenous corticosteroid has been the mainstay of treatment for active moderate-to-severe TED. With improved understanding of the pathophysiology of TED, immunotherapy targeting different molecular pathways including T cells, B cells, cytokines and cell surface receptors have been investigated in randomised clinical trials. This review provides an overview of the current advances in medical treatment including teprotumumab, tocilizumab, rituximab and mycophenolate and the ind..

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