The relevance of critical flux concept in the concentration of skim milk using forward osmosis and reverse osmosis
Anna Artemi, George Q Chen, Sandra E Kentish, Judy Lee
Journal of Membrane Science | Elsevier BV | Published : 2020
Skim milk was concentrated at 10 °C using forward osmosis (FO), reverse osmosis (RO) and pressure-assisted forward osmosis (PAFO). A pressure of 40 bar, in the form of draw solution osmotic pressure (FO and PAFO modes) or transmembrane hydraulic pressure (RO mode) was applied; an additional hydraulic pressure of 2 bar was applied in the PAFO mode. More severe protein fouling was observed in RO, followed by PAFO and then FO. This was credited to the difference in the initial permeate flux, induced by the different effective driving pressures, with RO having a greater deviation of the initial flux from the critical flux value. The critical flux was determined for the FO and RO modes using a st..View full abstract
Awarded by Cyprus State Scholarship Foundation, through the PhD scholarship
Anna Artemi would like to acknowledge the financial support by the Cyprus State Scholarship Foundation, through the PhD scholarship IKYK 99.