Journal article

Prevalence and correlates of muscle-enhancing behaviors among adolescents and young adults in the United States.

Jason M Nagata, Kyle T Ganson, Scott Griffiths, Deborah Mitchison, Andrea K Garber, Eric Vittinghoff, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Stuart B Murray

Int J Adolesc Med Health | Published : 2020

Abstract

Objectives To determine the prevalence of muscle-enhancing behaviors in adolescents and young adults using a nationally representative sample in the USA and to examine differences by sex, race/ethnicity, age, socioeconomic status, body mass index, and participation in team sports. Methods Prospective cohort data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, Waves I through III (1994-2002) were analyzed. Engagement in muscle-enhancing behaviors including dietary changes, exercise and weightlifting, supplement use, performance-enhancing substances, and anabolic androgenic steroids were recorded. Multiple logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations, i..

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Grants

Awarded by American Heart Association


Awarded by Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development


Awarded by University of Melbourne


Awarded by National Institutes of Health


Awarded by National Health and Medical Research Council