Prevalence and correlates of muscle-enhancing behaviors among adolescents and young adults in the United States.
Jason M Nagata, Kyle T Ganson, Scott Griffiths, Deborah Mitchison, Andrea K Garber, Eric Vittinghoff, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Stuart B Murray
Int J Adolesc Med Health | Published : 2020
Objectives To determine the prevalence of muscle-enhancing behaviors in adolescents and young adults using a nationally representative sample in the USA and to examine differences by sex, race/ethnicity, age, socioeconomic status, body mass index, and participation in team sports. Methods Prospective cohort data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, Waves I through III (1994-2002) were analyzed. Engagement in muscle-enhancing behaviors including dietary changes, exercise and weightlifting, supplement use, performance-enhancing substances, and anabolic androgenic steroids were recorded. Multiple logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations, i..View full abstract