Journal article

Causes and Consequences of Snake Venom Variation

Nicholas R Casewell, Timothy NW Jackson, Andreas H Laustsen, Kartik Sunagar

TRENDS IN PHARMACOLOGICAL SCIENCES | ELSEVIER SCIENCE LONDON | Published : 2020

Abstract

Snake venoms are mixtures of toxins that vary extensively between and within snake species. This variability has serious consequences for the management of the world's 1.8 million annual snakebite victims. Advances in 'omic' technologies have empowered toxinologists to comprehensively characterize snake venom compositions, unravel the molecular mechanisms that underpin venom variation, and elucidate the ensuing functional consequences. In this review, we describe how such mechanistic processes have resulted in suites of toxin isoforms that cause diverse pathologies in human snakebite victims and we detail how variation in venom composition can result in treatment failure. Finally, we outline..

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Grants

Awarded by UK Medical Research Council


Awarded by Wellcome Trust


Awarded by Royal Society


Awarded by National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia


Awarded by Villum Foundation


Awarded by European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme


Awarded by DST-INSPIRE Faculty Award


Awarded by DST-FIST


Funding Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Tulika for the creation of Figure 3. N.R.C. acknowledges funding support from the UK Department for International Development, a UK Medical Research Council grant (MR/S00016X/1), and a Sir Henry Dale Fellowship (200517/Z/16/Z) jointly funded by the Wellcome Trust and Royal Society. T.N.W.J. acknowledges funding from the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (grant agreement 13/093/001). A.H.L. acknowledges funding support from the Villum Foundation (Grant No. 00025302) and the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (Grant agreement No. 850974). K.S. acknowledges funding from the UK Department for International Development, the DBT-IISc Partnership Program, DST-INSPIRE Faculty Award (DST/INSPIRE/04/2017/000071), and DST-FIST (SR/FST/LS-II/2018/233).