Journal article

What do editors do? Understanding the physiological functions of A-to-I RNA editing by adenosine deaminase acting on RNAs

Jacki E Heraud-Farlow, Carl R Walkley

OPEN BIOLOGY | ROYAL SOC | Published : 2020

Abstract

Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing is a post-transcriptional modification of RNA which changes its sequence, coding potential and secondary structure. Catalysed by the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) proteins, ADAR1 and ADAR2, A-to-I editing occurs at approximately 50 000-150 000 sites in mice and into the millions of sites in humans. The vast majority of A-to-I editing occurs in repetitive elements, accounting for the discrepancy in total numbers of sites between species. The species-conserved primary role of editing by ADAR1 in mammals is to suppress innate immune activation by unedited cell-derived endogenous RNA. In the absence of editing, inverted paired sequences, such as A..

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Grants

Awarded by National Health and Medical Research Council, Australia (NHMRC)


Awarded by Australian Research Council


Funding Acknowledgements

Work by the authors is supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council, Australia (NHMRC; to C.R.W. APP1144049 and APP1183553; to J.E.H.-F. APP1182453); Australian Research Council (C.R.W., DP180103989); Marian and E. H. Flack Trust (J.E.H.-F.); 5point Foundation (J.E.H.-F.); SVI Rising Star Award (J.E.H.-F.) and in part by the Victorian State Government Operational Infrastructure Support (to St Vincent's Institute).