Journal article

Inference about causation from examination of familial confounding (ICE FALCON): a model for assessing causation analogous to Mendelian randomization

Shuai Li, Minh Bui, John L Hopper



BACKGROUND: We developed a method to make Inference about Causation from Examination of FAmiliaL CONfounding (ICE FALCON) using observational data for related individuals and considering changes in a pair of regression coefficients. ICE FALCON has some similarities to Mendelian randomization (MR) but uses in effect all the familial determinants of the exposure, not just those captured by measured genetic variants, and does not require genetic data nor make strong assumptions. ICE FALCON can assess tracking of a measure over time, an issue often difficult to assess using MR due to lack of a valid instrumental variable. METHODS: We describe ICE FALCON and present two empirical applications wit..

View full abstract


Awarded by National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)

Awarded by National Breast Cancer Foundation

Awarded by Victorian Cancer Agency

Awarded by NHMRC Program grant

Funding Acknowledgements

The Australian Mammographic Density Twins and Sisters Study (AMDTSS) was supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC, grant numbers 1050561 and 1079102), Cancer Australia and National Breast Cancer Foundation (grant number 509307). S.L. is a Victorian Cancer Agency Early Career Research Fellow (grant number ECRF19020). J.L.H. is a NHMRC Senior Principal Research Fellow. The work was supported by the NHMRC Program grant (grant number 1074383).