Journal article

Diet, Secondhand Smoke, and Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) Levels among Singapore Chinese Adults

Brianna F Moore, Lesley M Butler, Annette M Bachand, Agus Salim, Stephen J Reynolds, Renwei Wang, Tracy L Nelson, Jennifer L Peel, Sharon E Murphy, Woon-Puay Koh, Jian-Min Yuan, Maggie L Clark

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | MDPI | Published : 2019


The combination of poor diet and exposure to secondhand smoke may increase hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, but few studies have explored this interaction. We explored an interaction among 574 never-smoking adults from the Singapore Chinese Health Study. At baseline (age 59 ± 8 years), intakes of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin C, vitamin E and fiber were estimated using a modified food frequency questionnaire. At follow-up (age 64 ± 9 years), HbA1c and cotinine were measured. A product term between cotinine (above or below the median value) and each nutrient (high or low intake) was included in separate linear regression models with HbA1c as the outcome. HbA1c among those with hi..

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Awarded by American Heart Association

Awarded by National Health and Medical Research Council [NHMRC]

Awarded by U.S. National Institutes of Health

Funding Acknowledgements

This work was partially supported by the American Heart Association Beginning Grant-in-Aid [Clark, 12BGIA11910040]. Agus Salim's work on developing methods for secondary analysis of nested case-control data was partially funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council [NHMRC, 1108967]. The Singapore Chinese Health Study was supported by the U.S. National Institutes of Health grants R01 CA144034 and UM1 CA182876.