Future directions in advanced penile cancer - mechanisms of carcinogenesis and a search for targeted therapy
Jiasian Teh, Ellen O'Connor, Jonathon O'Brien, Wei Mou Lim, Michael Taylor, Alexander Heriot, Robert Ramsay, Nathan Lawrentschuk
Future Oncology | FUTURE MEDICINE LTD | Published : 2020
Penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare and aggressive urological malignancy. Advanced penile SCC requires multimodal management, including surgery and systemic therapy. Given its rarity, there have been few substantial advances in our understanding of the molecular and genomic drivers of penile SCC, especially for patients with relapsed or advanced disease. In this review, we discuss the molecular and genomic landscape of penile SCC, clinical trials in progress and implications for novel therapeutic targets. Future work should focus on preclinical models to provide a platform for investigation and validation of new molecular pathways for testing of therapeutics.