Smoking and female fecundity: the effect and importance of study design
DJ Wilks, AWM Hay
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY AND REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY | ELSEVIER | Published : 2004
This review evaluates the evidence for a link between smoking and female fertility. Twenty-two primary papers and two reviews were found. All but three indicated a detrimental effect of smoking on reproduction despite varying considerably in their approach, definitions used and populations studied. The strength of association is small but statistically significant and a dose response relationship suggests the theory that smoking is causative. Poor design in particular and the failure to assess confounders weakened many studies and should be addressed in future studies.