Journal article

Noninfectious mixed cryoglobulinaemic glomerulonephritis and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance: a coincidental association?

Adam L Flavell, Robert O Fullinfaw, Edward R Smith, Stephen G Holt, Moira J Finlay, Thomas D Barbour

BMC Nephrology | BMC | Published : 2020

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Cryoglobulins are cold-precipitable immunoglobulins that may cause systemic vasculitis including cryoglobulinaemic glomerulonephritis (CGN). Type 1 cryoglobulins consist of isolated monoclonal immunoglobulin (mIg), whereas mixed cryoglobulins are typically immune complexes comprising either monoclonal (type 2) or polyclonal (type 3) Ig with rheumatoid activity against polyclonal IgG. Only CGN related to type 1 cryoglobulins has been clearly associated with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) using the conventional serum-, urine- or tissue-based methods of paraprotein detection. CASE PRESENTATION: We present four patients with noninfectious mixed (type 2 or 3..

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