Higher mortality of COVID-19 in males: sex differences in immune response and cardiovascular comorbidities
Laura A Bienvenu, Jonathan Noonan, Xiaowei Wang, Karlheinz Peter
CARDIOVASCULAR RESEARCH | OXFORD UNIV PRESS | Published : 2020
The high mortality rate of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is a critical concern of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Strikingly, men account for the majority of COVID-19 deaths, with current figures ranging from 59% to 75% of total mortality. However, despite clear implications in relation to COVID-19 mortality, most research has not considered sex as a critical factor in data analysis. Here, we highlight fundamental biological differences that exist between males and females, and how these may make significant contributions to the male-biased COVID-19 mortality. We present preclinical evidence identifying the influence of biological se..View full abstract
L.B. was supported by a National Heart Foundation (NHF) of Australia Postdoctoral Fellowship. X.W. was supported by an NHF Future Leader Fellowship and a Baker Fellowship. K.P. was supported by a National Health andMedical Research Council Investigator Fellowship.