Journal article

Higher mortality of COVID-19 in males: sex differences in immune response and cardiovascular comorbidities

Laura A Bienvenu, Jonathan Noonan, Xiaowei Wang, Karlheinz Peter

CARDIOVASCULAR RESEARCH | OXFORD UNIV PRESS | Published : 2020

Abstract

The high mortality rate of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is a critical concern of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Strikingly, men account for the majority of COVID-19 deaths, with current figures ranging from 59% to 75% of total mortality. However, despite clear implications in relation to COVID-19 mortality, most research has not considered sex as a critical factor in data analysis. Here, we highlight fundamental biological differences that exist between males and females, and how these may make significant contributions to the male-biased COVID-19 mortality. We present preclinical evidence identifying the influence of biological se..

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