Journal article

Demographic Characteristics, Experiences, and Beliefs Associated with Hand Hygiene Among Adults During the COVID-19 Pandemic - United States, June 24-30, 2020

Mark E Czeisler, Amanda G Garcia-Williams, Noelle-Angelique Molinari, Radhika Gharpure, Yiman Li, Catherine E Barrett, Rebecca Robbins, Elise R Facer-Childs, Laura K Barger, Charles A Czeisler, Shantha MW Rajaratnam, Mark E Howard



Frequent hand hygiene, including handwashing with soap and water or using a hand sanitizer containing ≥60% alcohol when soap and water are not readily available, is one of several critical prevention measures recommended to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).* Previous studies identified demographic factors associated with handwashing among U.S. adults during the COVID-19 pandemic (1,2); however, demographic factors associated with hand sanitizing and experiences and beliefs associated with hand hygiene have not been well characterized. To evaluate these factors, an Internet-based survey was conducted among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years du..

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University of Melbourne Researchers


Funding Acknowledgements

All authors have completed and submitted the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors form for disclosure of potential conflicts of interest. Mark E. Czeisler reports a grant from the Australian-American Fulbright Commission and personal fees from Vanda Pharmaceuticals. Rebecca Robbins reports personal fees from Denihan Hospitality, Rituals Cosmetics, SleepCycle, Dagmejan, and byNacht. Elise R. Facer-Childs reports a grant from the Science and Industry Endowment Fund Ross Metcalf STEM+ Business Fellowship administered by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Canberra, Australia. Laura K. Barger reports a grant from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and personal fees from the University of Pittsburgh, CurAegis, Casis, Puget Sound Pilots, Boston Children's Hospital, and Charles A. Czeisler. Charles A. Czeisler reports an endowed professorship provided to Harvard Medical School by Cephalon, Inc.; educational and research support to Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital from Philips Respironics, Inc. (supported in part the survey administration and analysis) and from a gift to Brigham and Women's Hospital by Alexandra Drane, the CEO of Archangels (support for The COPE Initiative); grants from the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Teva Pharmaceuticals Industries, Ltd; consulting fees and equity interest from Vanda Pharmaceuticals; lecture fees from Teva Pharma Australia; and royalties from Philips Respironics for the Actiwatch-2 and Actiwatch-Spectrum devices. Shantha M.W. Rajartnam reports grants from the Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, Monash University, and Teva Pharmaceuticals; a grant and personal fees from the Cooperative Research Centre for Alertness, Safety and Productivity; and consultancy fees paid to Monash University from Vanda Pharmaceuticals, BHP Billiton, and Herbert Smith Freehills. Mark E. Howard reports a grant from the Institute for Breathing and Sleep, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia. Shantha M.W. Rajartnam, Mark E. Howard, Charles A. Czeisler, Laura K. Barger, Elise R. Facer-Childs, and Mark E. Czeisler report a contract from Whoop Inc. to Monash University, which provided partial funding for administration of the June Survey. No other potential conflicts of interest were disclosed.