Journal article

Observations of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, and surface radiation over the Southern Ocean: An overview of CAPRICORN, MARCUS, MICRE and SOCRATES

Greg M McFarquhar, Chris Bretherton, Roger Marchand, Alain Protat, Paul J DeMott, Simon P Alexander, Greg C Roberts, Cynthia H Twohy, Darin Toohey, Steve Siems, Yi Huang, Robert Wood, Robert M Rauber, Sonia Lasher-Trapp, Jorgen Jensen, Jeff Stith, Jay Mace, Junshik Um, Emma Järvinen, Martin Schnaiter Show all

Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society | American Meteorological Society | Published : 2020

Abstract

AbstractWeather and climate models are challenged by uncertainties and biases in simulating Southern Ocean (SO) radiative fluxes that trace to a poor understanding of cloud, aerosol, precipitation and radiative processes, and their interactions. Projects between 2016 and 2018 used in-situ probes, radar, lidar and other instruments to make comprehensive measurements of thermodynamics, surface radiation, cloud, precipitation, aerosol, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nucleating particles over the SO cold waters, and in ubiquitous liquid and mixed-phase cloudsnucleating particles over the SO cold waters, and in ubiquitous liquid and mixed-phase clouds common to this pristine environment...

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