Journal article

Observations of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, and surface radiation over the Southern Ocean: An overview of CAPRICORN, MARCUS, MICRE and SOCRATES

Greg McFarquhar, Chris Bretherton, Roger Marchand, Alain Protat, Paul DeMott, Simon Alexander, Greg Roberts, Cynthia Twohy, Darin Toohey, Steven Siems, Yi Huang, Robert Wood, Robert Rauber, Sonia Lasher-Trapp, Jensen Jensen, Jeff Stith, Jay Mace, Emma Järvinen, Martin Schnaiter, Andrew Gettelman Show all

Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society | American Meteorological Society | Published : 2020

Abstract

Weather and climate models are challenged by uncertainties and biases in simulating Southern Ocean (SO) radiative fluxes that trace to a poor understanding of cloud, aerosol, precipitation, and radiative processes, and their interactions. Projects between 2016 and 2018 used in situ probes, radar, lidar, and other instruments to make comprehensive measurements of thermodynamics, surface radiation, cloud, precipitation, aerosol, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), and ice nucleating particles over the SO cold waters, and in ubiquitous liquid and mixed-phase clouds common to this pristine environment. Data including soundings were collected from the NSF–NCAR G-V aircraft flying north–south gradien..

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Grants

Awarded by National Science Foundation (NSF)


Awarded by United States Department of Energy


Awarded by NSF


Awarded by DOE


Awarded by NSF Graduate Research Fellowship


Awarded by National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) - Korean government (MSIT)


Awarded by Basic Science Research Program through the NRF - Ministry of Education


Awarded by Australian Research Council


Awarded by Australian Antarctic Division's grant


Awarded by AAD through Australian Antarctic Science


Funding Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) through Grants AGS-1628674 (GMM, RMR, SLT) and AGS-1762096 (GMM, RMR, SLT) and by the United States Department of Energy through Grant DE-SC0018626. CSB, RW, and ILM acknowledge NSF Grant AGS-1660609, and CSB and RLA acknowledge NSF Grant AGS-1660604. GCR and KJS acknowledge NSF Grant AGS-1660374. CHT acknowledges NSF Grant AGS-1660605. DT and BR acknowledge NSF Grant AGS-1660537. PJD, TCJH, and KAM acknowledge NSF Grant AGS-1660486 and DOE Grant DE-SC0018929. KAM acknowledges support by an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant 006784. JU was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MSIT) 2020R1A2C1013278 and by Basic Science Research Program through the NRF funded by the Ministry of Education (No. 2020R1A6A1A03044834). CM was supported primarily by the National Center for Atmospheric Research and received travel support from NSF AGS-1660486. YH acknowledges support from the Australian Research Council's DP150102894, DP190101362 and CE170100023 grants. SS acknowledges support from the Australian Research Council's DP150102894 and DP190101362 grants and the Australian Antarctic Division's AAD4340 grant. The material in the article is based upon work supported by the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is a major facility sponsored by the NSF under Cooperative Agreement 1852977. The data were collected using NSF's Lower Atmosphere Observing Facilities, which are managed and operated by NCAR's Earth Observing Laboratory. The Australian Bureau of Meteorology's contribution to these studies was funded by the Australian government through the National Environmental Science Program (NESP) and the Australian Antarctic Partnership Program (AAPP). The efforts of the entire SOCRATES, MARCUS, MICRE, and CAPRICORN teams in collecting the high-quality datasets are appreciated. Technical, logistical, and ship support for MARCUS and MICRE were provided by the AAD through Australian Antarctic Science Projects 4431, 4292, and 4387, and we thank Steven Whiteside, Lloyd Symonds, Rick van den Enden, Peter de Vries, Chris Young, Chris Richards, Terry Egan, Nick Cartwright, and Ken Barrett for assistance. Logistical and financial support was provided for CAPRICORN by the Australian Marine National Facility. Anne Marie Rauker is acknowledged for assistance in INP data processing. Anne Perring is acknowledged for the use of her WIBS-4A during CAPRICORN II. Paul Selleck is acknowledged for his work with the ToF-ACSM during CAPRICORN II. Robyn Schofield also acknowledges support from the Australian Research Council's DP160101598, LE150100048, and CE170100023 grants. The SOCRATES principal investigators would like to thank the BoM Tasmanian regional Office for the excellent forecast support and weather briefings provided during the field campaign (with special thanks to Scott Carpentier, Michelle Hollister, Matthew Thomas, and Robert Schaap). We thank the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program sponsored by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Climate and Environmental Science Division for their support. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the funding agencies.