Journal article

Body dysmorphic disorder: a treatment synthesis and consensus on behalf of the International College of Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders and the Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders Network of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology

David Castle, Francesca Beilharz, Katharine A Phillips, Vlasios Brakoulias, Lynne M Drummond, Eric Hollander, Konstantinos Ioannidis, Stefano Pallanti, Samuel R Chamberlain, Susan L Rossell, David Veale, Sabine Wilhelm, Michael Van Ameringen, Bernardo Dell'Osso, Jose M Menchon, Naomi A Fineberg

International Clinical Psychopharmacology | LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS | Published : 2021


Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by a preoccupation with a perceived appearance flaw or flaws that are not observable to others. BDD is associated with distress and impairment of functioning. Psychiatric comorbidities, including depression, social anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder are common and impact treatment. Treatment should encompass psychoeducation, particularly addressing the dangers associated with cosmetic procedures, and may require high doses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors* (SSRI*) and protracted periods to establish full benefit. If there is an inadequate response to SSRIs, various adjunctive medications can be employed including atypical anti..

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University of Melbourne Researchers


Awarded by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)

Funding Acknowledgements

The authors wish to acknowledge the members of the International College of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders ( who have contributed to the development of this manuscript. This manuscript has benefited from support for scientific networking activities and open access publication provided by the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorder Research Network (OCRN), as well as networking opportunities, provided by the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, World Psychiatric Association Scientific Section for Anxiety and ObsessiveCompulsive and Related Disorders and COST Action CA16207 "European Network for Problematic Usage of the Internet", supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) authors were involved in drafting the manuscript and agreed to its publication. All authors read and approved their sections of the final version of the manuscript.