Journal article

The 2020 report of the Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: responding to converging crises

Nick Watts, Markus Amann, Nigel Arnell, Sonja Ayeb-Karlsson, Jessica Beagley, Kristine Belesova, Maxwell Boykoff, Peter Byass, Wenjia Cai, Diarmid Campbell-Lendrum, Stuart Capstick, Jonathan Chambers, Samantha Coleman, Carole Dalin, Meaghan Daly, Niheer Dasandi, Shouro Dasgupta, Michael Davies, Claudia Di Napoli, Paula Dominguez-Salas Show all



TRANSLATIONS: For the Chinese, French, German, and Spanish translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

University of Melbourne Researchers


Awarded by Wellcome Trust

Awarded by Wellcome Trust's Complex Urban Systems for Sustainability and Health project

Awarded by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council Centre for Research in Energy Demand Solutions

Awarded by Wellcome Trust's Livestock, Environment and People project

Awarded by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Applied Sciences Program

Awarded by National Institutes of Health

Funding Acknowledgements

It is with great sadness that we acknowledge the passing of Peter Byass and Georgina Mace, both of whom were instrumental to the formation of the Lancet Countdown and its ongoing scientific and strategic direction. Peter, who was a world-leading global health expert, sat on the board of the Lancet Countdown and co-chaired Working Group 2: adaptation, planning, and resilience for health. Georgina, a worldleading expert in biodiversity and ecosystems, was a member of the Lancet Countdown's Scientific Advisory Group. The Lancet Countdown's work was supported by an unrestricted grant from the Wellcome Trust (209734/Z/17/Z). We thank the Wellcome Trust, in particular Madeleine Thomson and Lukasz Aleksandrowicz, for financial and strategic support, without which this research collaboration would not be possible. The Lancet Countdown covered travel costs for meetings related to the development of the paper. 13 of the authors (NW, AM, MRo, JB, CDN, SC, HK, NH, PL, PD, GK, MA, and OP) were compensated for their time while working on the drafting and development of the Lancet Countdown's report. The work of DG and PD-S was supported by the CGIAR Research Programme, Agriculture for Nutrition and Health, and PD-S was also supported by the CGIAR Livestock Research Programme. The work of MDav and JM was supported by the Wellcome Trust's Complex Urban Systems for Sustainability and Health project (award code 209387/Z/17/Z). The work of TO was supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council Centre for Research in Energy Demand Solutions (grant number EP/R035288/1). The work of MS was supported by the Wellcome Trust's Livestock, Environment and People project (award number 205212/Z/16/Z). The work of MW was supported by the UK Energy Research Centre. The work of YL and BV was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Applied Sciences Program (grant numbers NNX16AQ28Q and 80NSSC19K0191). The content of this report is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of NASA. JTr acknowledges funding from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's OceanWatch and Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. The work of RL was supported by the Royal Society Dorothy Hodgkin Fellowship. The work of RD was supported by the High Tide Foundation. The work of MPJ was supported by the National Institutes of Health (grant number 1K99AG066949-01). While carrying out its work, the Lancet Countdown received invaluable technical advice and input from several individuals, including Heather Adair-Rohani and Lucia Fernandez Montoya (World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland); Simon Bennett and Chiara Delmastro (International Energy Agency, Paris, France); Yossi Cadan (, Oakland, CA, USA); Dung Phung (Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia); Peter James (Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA); Juan Gonzalo Uribe Piedrahita, Sebastian Ramirez Ruiz, and Yuan Ting Lee (Hertie School, Berlin, Germany); Brian Hoskins and Daniela Fecht (Imperial College London, London, UK); Anna Mavrogianni (University College London, London, UK); Midori Aoyagi and Kaori Doi (National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan); Kaixin Huang (Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA); Andreas Ytterstad and Anne Hege Simonsen (Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway); Christofer Astrom (Umea University, Umea, Sweden); Isidro Jimenez Gomez (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain); Rogelio Fernandez Reyes (Universidad de Sevilla, Seville, Spain); Gretchen Newby (University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA); Ami Nacu-Schmidt, Andrew Benham, David Oonk, Marisa McNatt, Jennifer Katzung, Patrick Chandler, and Lauren Gifford (University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA); Friederike Otto (University of Oxford, Oxford, UK); Gabi Mocatta (University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia); Yasushi Honda (University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan); Howard Frumkin, Christopher Boyer, and Eileen Kazura (University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA); and Amy Darfesky, Joshua Wallach, and Saskia Comess (Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA). Administrative, policy, and communications advice was provided by Peter Chalkley (Energy and Climate Intelligence Unit, London, UK); Paige Knappenberger (Climate Nexus, New York, NY, USA); Anne Coleman, Emma-Louise Frost, and Andrew Child (the Lancet Countdown); Laura Donovan (Malaria Consortium, London, UK); and Anjuli Borgonha.