Journal article

Toward precision immunotherapy using multiplex immunohistochemistry and in silico methods to define the tumor immune microenvironment

Samuel S Widodo, Ryan A Hutchinson, Yitong Fang, Stefano Mangiola, Paul J Neeson, Phillip K Darcy, Alexander D Barrow, Christopher M Hovens, Marija Dinevska, Stanley S Stylli, Theo Mantamadiotis



Recent developments in cancer immunotherapy promise better outcomes for cancer patients, although clinical trials for difficult to treat cancers such as malignant brain cancer present special challenges, showing little response to first generation immunotherapies. Reasons for differences in immunotherapy response in some cancer types are likely due to the nature of tumor microenvironment, which harbors multiple cell types which interact with tumor cells to establish immunosuppression. The cell types which appear to hold the key in regulating tumor immunosuppression are the tumor-infiltrating immune cells. The current standard treatment for difficult to treat cancer, including the most malign..

View full abstract


Awarded by CASS Foundation, Australia

Awarded by NHMRC Senior Research Fellowship

Funding Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the support of the CASS Foundation (Grant no. 28534), The Royal Melbourne Hospital Neuroscience Foundation, and the Brain Foundation, Australia. SW was supported by the Australia Awards Scholarship from the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Australia. PKD was supported by a NHMRC Senior Research Fellowship (APP1136680).