Journal article

Central mechanisms in phantom limb perception: the past, present and future.

Melita J Giummarra, Stephen J Gibson, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, John L Bradshaw

Brain Research Reviews | Published : 2007

Abstract

Phantom limbs provide valuable insight into the mechanisms underlying bodily awareness and ownership. This paper reviews the complexity of phantom limb phenomena (proprioception, form, position, posture and telescoping), and the various contributions of internal constructs of the body, or body schema, and neuromatrix theory in explaining these phenomena. Specific systems and processes that have received little attention in phantom limb research are also reviewed and highlighted as important future directions, These include prosthesis embodiment and extended physiological proprioception (i.e., the extension of the body's "area of influence" that thereby extends one's innate sense of proprioce..

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