Does psychological distress directly increase risk of incident cardiovascular disease? Evidence from a prospective cohort study using a longer-term measure of distress
Jennifer Welsh, Emily Banks, Grace Joshy, Peter Butterworth, Lyndall Strazdins, Rosemary J Korda
BMJ OPEN | BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP | Published : 2021
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence is elevated among people with psychological distress. However, whether the relationship is causal is unclear, partly due to methodological limitations, including limited evidence relating to longer-term rather than single time-point measures of distress. We compared CVD relative risks for psychological distress using single time-point and multi-time-point assessments using data from a large-scale cohort study. DESIGN: We used questionnaire data, with data collection at two time-points (time 1: between 2006 and 2009; time 2: between 2010 and 2015), from CVD-free and cancer-free 45 and Up Study participants, linked to hospitalisation and death ..View full abstract
Awarded by National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) of Australia
Awarded by NHMRC
Awarded by ARC Future Fellowship
The research was funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) of Australia (GNT1092674), in partnership with the National Heart Foundation of Australia, NSW Agency for Clinical Innovation and Consumers Health Forum of Australia. JW is supported by an Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship. EB is supported by the NHMRC (1136128). PB was supported by ARC Future Fellowship (FT130101444) and a University of Melbourne Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences Research Fellowship. Funding bodies did not provide input to the design of this study, interpretation of results or write-up of the study.