Journal article

Evolution of immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 in mild-moderate COVID-19

Adam K Wheatley, Jennifer A Juno, Jing J Wang, Kevin J Selva, Arnold Reynaldi, Hyon-Xhi Tan, Wen Shi Lee, Kathleen M Wragg, Hannah G Kelly, Robyn Esterbauer, Samantha K Davis, Helen E Kent, Francesca L Mordant, Timothy E Schlub, David L Gordon, David S Khoury, Kanta Subbarao, Deborah Cromer, Tom P Gordon, Amy W Chung Show all



The durability of infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 immunity has major implications for reinfection and vaccine development. Here, we show a comprehensive profile of antibody, B cell and T cell dynamics over time in a cohort of patients who have recovered from mild-moderate COVID-19. Binding and neutralising antibody responses, together with individual serum clonotypes, decay over the first 4 months post-infection. A similar decline in Spike-specific CD4+ and circulating T follicular helper frequencies occurs. By contrast, S-specific IgG+ memory B cells consistently accumulate over time, eventually comprising a substantial fraction of circulating the memory B cell pool. Modelling of the concomita..

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Awarded by Australian government Medical Research Future Fund

Awarded by NHMRC

Awarded by NHMRC-EU

Awarded by European Union

Funding Acknowledgements

We thank the participations for the generous involvement and provision of samples. We thank E. Haycroft, E. Lopez, C. Nelson and T. Amarasena and C. Batten (University of Melbourne) for excellent technical assistance. The SARS-CoV-2 RBD expression plasmids were kindly provided by F. Krammer (Icahn School of Medicine at Mt Sinai). Recombinant human ACE2 was kindly provided by N. Gherardin and D. Godfrey (University of Melbourne). We acknowledge the Melbourne Cytometry Platform (Melbourne Brain Centre node) for provision of flow cytometry services. We thank T. Chataway and A. Colella (Flinders Proteomics Facility) for technical support with quantitative proteomics. This study was supported by the Victorian Government, an Australian government Medical Research Future Fund award GNT2002073 (S.J.K., M.P.D. and A.K.W.), the ARC Centre of Excellence in Convergent Bio-Nano Science and Technology (S.J.K.), an NHMRC program grant APP1149990 (S.J.K. and M.P.D.), NHMRC project grant GNT1162760 (A.K.W.), an NHMRC-EU collaborative award APP1115828 (S.J.K. and M.P.D.), the European Union Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under grant agreement 681137 (S.J.K.), Emergent Ventures Fast Grants (A.W.C.), the Jack Ma Foundation (K.S.), and the A2 Milk Company (K.S.). J.A.J., D.S.K. and S.J.K. are supported by NHMRC fellowships. J.J.W. is supported by Flinders University DVCR Fellowship and Flinders Health & Medical Research Institute COVID-19 Research Grant. A.K.W., K.S., D.C. and M.P.D. are supported by NHMRC Investigator grants. The Melbourne WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza is supported by the Australian Government Department of Health.