Journal article

The first supermassive black holes: indications from models for future observations

Stergios Amarantidis, Jose Afonso, Hugo Messias, Bruno Henriques, Andrew Griffin, Cedric Lacey, Claudia del P Lagos, Violeta Gonzalez-Perez, Yohan Dubois, Marta Volonteri, Israel Matute, Ciro Pappalardo, Yuxiang Qin, Ranga-Ram Chary, Ray P Norris

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | OXFORD UNIV PRESS | Published : 2019

Abstract

We present an exploration of the expected detection of the earliest active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the Universe from state-of-art galaxy formation and evolution semi-analytic models and hydrodynamical simulations. We estimate the number and radiative characteristics of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at z ≥ 6, a redshift range that will be intensively explored by the next generation of telescopes, in particular in the radio through the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and at high energies with ESA's Athena X-ray Observatory. We find that Athena will be able to observe over 5000 AGN deg at the Epoch of Re-ionization (EoR), 6 ≤ z ≤ 10. Similarly, for the same redshift range the models/simulati..

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University of Melbourne Researchers

Grants

Awarded by Science and Technology Foundation (FCT, Portugal)


Awarded by FCT via the post-doctoral fellowship


Awarded by Australian Research Council Discovery Early Career Researcher Award


Awarded by Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence


Awarded by BIS National E-infrastructure capital grant


Awarded by STFC capital grants


Awarded by STFC DiRAC Operations grant


Awarded by Science and Technology facilities Council


Awarded by STFC


Funding Acknowledgements

SA, JA, IM, and CP gratefully acknowledge support from the Science and Technology Foundation (FCT, Portugal) through the research grants UID/FIS/04434/2019, PTDC/FIS-AST/29245/2017, SFRH/BPD/95578/2013, and SFRH/BPD/90559/2012. HM thanks the opportunity given by the ALMA Partnership to work at the Joint ALMA Observatory via its Fellowship programme. HM acknowledges support by FCT via the post-doctoral fellowship SFRH/BPD/97986/2013. CDPL is funded by an Australian Research Council Discovery Early Career Researcher Award (DE150100618) and by the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions (ASTRO 3D), through project number CE170100013. The GALFORM runs used the DiRAC Data Centric system at Durham University, operated by the Institute for Computational Cosmology on behalf of the STFC DiRAC HPC Facility (www.dirac.ac.uk).This equipment was funded by BIS National E-infrastructure capital grant ST/K00042X/1, STFC capital grants ST/H008519/1 and ST/K00087X/1, STFC DiRAC Operations grant ST/K003267/1, and Durham University. The work done using GALFORM was supported by the Science and Technology facilities Council ST/L00075X/1. AJG acknowledges an STFC studentship funded by STFC grant ST/N50404X/1. We acknowledge the support from the teams developing the models presented in this paper, for making their data available. We acknowledge the Virgo Consortium for making their simulation data available. The EAGLE simulations were performed using the DiRAC-2 facility at Durham, managed by the ICC, and the PRACE facility Curie based in France at TGCC, CEA, Bruyeres-le-Chatel. The Millennium Simulation databases used in this paper and the web application providing online access to them were constructed as part of the activities of the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (GAVO).