The intersect of genetics, environment, and microbiota in asthma-perspectives and challenges.
Howard HF Tang, Shu Mei Teo, Peter D Sly, Patrick G Holt, Michael Inouye
J Allergy Clin Immunol | Published : 2021
In asthma, a significant portion of the interaction between genetics and environment occurs through microbiota. The proposed mechanisms behind this interaction are complex and at times contradictory. This review covers recent developments in our understanding of this interaction: the "microbial hypothesis" and the "farm effect"; the role of endotoxin and genetic variation in pattern recognition systems; the interaction with allergen exposure; the additional involvement of host gut and airway microbiota; the role of viral respiratory infections in interaction with the 17q21 and CDHR3 genetic loci; and the importance of in utero and early-life timing of exposures. We propose a unified framewor..View full abstract