Invited review: The welfare of young calves transported by road.
Natalie Roadknight, Peter Mansell, Ellen Jongman, Natalie Courtman, Andrew Fisher
Journal of Dairy Science | American Dairy Science Association | Published : 2021
The transport of young calves is a welfare concern. Young calves aged ≤3 mo are particularly vulnerable to compromised welfare, and are at a relatively high risk of morbidity and mortality compared with adult cattle. Calves face several potential challenges to welfare during and after transport, including food and water deprivation, disease, injury, and stress from handling, social mixing, and new environments. The key risk factors identified for poor calf welfare associated with transport include long transport and fasting durations, young age at transport, poor colostral immunity, timing within the calving season, lack of bedding in trucks, and high stocking density. Maximizing calf welfar..View full abstract