Journal article

The Chemical Synthesis of Insulin: An Enduring Challenge.

John A Karas, John D Wade, Mohammed Akhter Hossain

Chemical Reviews | Published : 2021


The pancreatic peptide hormone insulin, first discovered exactly 100 years ago, is essential for glycemic control and is used as a therapeutic for the treatment of type 1 and, increasingly, type 2 diabetes. With a worsening global diabetes epidemic and its significant health budget imposition, there is a great demand for new analogues possessing improved physical and functional properties. However, the chemical synthesis of insulin's intricate 51-amino acid, two-chain, three-disulfide bond structure, together with the poor physicochemical properties of both the individual chains and the hormone itself, has long represented a major challenge to organic chemists. This review provides a timely ..

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