The diversity of Bt resistance genes in species of Lepidoptera.
David G Heckel, Linda J Gahan, Simon W Baxter, Jian-Zhou Zhao, Anthony M Shelton, Fred Gould, Bruce E Tabashnik
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology | Published : 2007
Although the mode of action of Cry1A toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis is fairly well understood, knowledge of the molecular mechanisms by which lepidopteran species have evolved resistance to them is still in its infancy. The most common type of resistance has been called "Mode 1" and is characterized by recessive inheritance, >500-fold resistance to and reduced binding by at least one Cry1A toxin, and negligible cross-resistance to Cry1C. In three lepidopteran species, Heliothis virescens, Pectinophora gossypiella, and Helicoverpa armigera, Mode 1 resistance is caused by mutations in a toxin-binding 12-cadherin-domain protein expressed in the larval midgut. These mutations all inte..View full abstract