Journal article

Multilayer co-encapsulation of probiotics and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) using ultrasound for functional food applications

Pooja Pandey, Srinivas Mettu, Hari Niwas Mishra, Muthupandian Ashokkumar, Gregory JO Martin



Double emulsion (W1/O/W2) microcapsules containing probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bioactive γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were prepared by two-step ultrasonication using dextran and whey protein as encapsulating materials. The formulation and ultrasound parameters were refined to optimise the size of the W1/O droplets and outer microcapsules (5–15 μm) for encapsulation of both LAB and GABA. Optical, fluorescence and SEM microscopy revealed the morphology of the microcapsules and confirmed the presence of encapsulated LAB. Ultrasound treatment for up to 200 s had no significant effect on bacteria viability (>109 CFU/mL), while GABA helped stabilise the primary (W1/O) emulsion and was u..

View full abstract


Funding Acknowledgements

We acknowledge The University of Melbourne for providing Pooja Pandey a scholarship via the Melbourne India Postgraduate Academy (MIPA) . We thank Rachana Pathak for assistance in HPLC analysis and Dr Sukhvir Kaur Bhangu for microscopy assistance. We thank the Advanced Microscopy Facility at Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, The University of Melbourne, for access to the electron microscopy facilities.