Journal article

Musculoskeletal Pathology in Cerebral Palsy: A Classification System and Reliability Study

H Kerr Graham, Pam Thomason, Kate Willoughby, Tandy Hastings-Ison, Renee Van Stralen, Benan Dala-Ali, Peter Wong, Erich Rutz

Children | MDPI | Published : 2021


This article presents a classification of lower limb musculoskeletal pathology (MSP) for ambulant children with cerebral palsy (CP) to identify key features from infancy to adulthood. The classification aims to improve communication, and to guide referral for interventions, which if timed appropriately, may optimise long-term musculoskeletal health and function. Consensus was achieved by discussion between staff in a Motion Analysis Laboratory (MAL). A four-stage classification system was developed: Stage 1: Hypertonia: Abnormal postures are dynamic. Stage 2: Contracture: Fixed shortening of one or more muscle-tendon units. Stage 3: Bone and joint deformity: Torsional deformities and/or join..

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Funding Acknowledgements

This research received no external funding. HKG receives support (non-financial) from NHMRC Centre of Research Excellence CP-Achieve. Erich Rutz is supported by the Bob Dicken's Research Fellowship in Paediatric Orthopaedics, University of Melbourne.