Journal article

Sanitation, financial incentives and health spillovers: A cluster randomised trial

Lisa Cameron, Paulo Santos, Milan Thomas, Jeff Albert



Poor sanitation and its consequent negative health outcomes continue to plague the developing world. Drawing on the finding that financial subsidies have changed behaviour in other health contexts, we conducted a clustered randomised trial in 160 villages in Lao PDR to evaluate the effectiveness of combining financial incentives with Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), a widely-conducted behaviour change program. Villages were randomly allocated to four groups, all of which received CLTS but differed in the type of subsidy offered (none, household, village or both). Using data from a random sample of households with young children and village administrative data, we show that household in..

View full abstract


Funding Acknowledgements

Funding for baseline data collection and analysis was generously provided by the World Bank (through the Water and Sanitation Program, which has now evolved into the World Bank Water Security and Sanitation Partnership) and the Civil Society WASH Fund of the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) . Endline data collection and analysis was supported by USAID's Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene Partnerships and Learning for Sustainability (WASHPaLS) program and the World Bank, through the Global Water Security and Sanitation Partnership fund.